Hello friends, in this article we will know what is database and how it works. In the old days, when there was no existence of computers, people used to store important notes, data and records manually. The files were used to store these data as accessing them was easy when needed. These are still used but now their scope has been limited to only individual or small organizations. The traditional file system was introduced to overcome this problem in which the computer was used to store the data in different files helping the organization to search the desired data in minutes. In this article, we will discuss data, how this data is managed (DBMS), and the applications of DBMS along with the advantages and disadvantages of DBMS.
What is Data?
Data is the different types of information that have implicit meaning. It can also be stated as the representation of concepts, facts, or information that is understandable and processable. Data can be represented using images, numbers, alphabets, and special characters. e.g. ‘300’, ‘Name’ etc.
Before moving ahead towards the DBMS and its application lets learn about Database.
What is Database
let us say that a database is a set of data organized in a way that is easily accessible, manageable and shared by multiple users. A small database can be handled manually but for large organizations, handling a large database becomes difficult, so a computerized database is useful.
The advantages of database systems are as follows
- Less toil
What is database management system (DBMS)
This is system software for creating and managing databases that’s called database management system (DBMS). Database Management System does all the work from creating, maintaining and deleting data. A software that can Create, Manage, Control, Delete and Update data.
If we have the marks of a class, then we can conclude who are the toppers and who are the average marks. This database management system stores data in such a way that it becomes easy to retrieve, manipulate, and produce information from it.
Features of DBMS
- It protects the database from unauthorized users.
- The DBMS must have a function allowing users to update, delete, store or retrieve data.
- It decreases duplication of data and minimizes data redundancy.
- Sharing of data to multi user without losing data consistency.
- In case of data loss or data corruption, a backup must be available to easily restore the corrupted or lost data.
- There is data independence in such a way that the user can change data at any level without affecting the other levels of the DBMS structure.
Full Form of DBMS?
The full form of DBMS is Database Management System.
When the definition of database is understood, it is a collection of related data which is organized in such a way that it can be easily accessed, managed and updated.
What are the components of a DBMS?
Following are the components of database management system:-
Hardware includes our computer system which is used to store and access our database. Under this come physical electronic devices such as – computer, I/O channels, storage devices etc. Mostly hard disk is used to store data in computer system.
It is the most important component of DBMS. It is a group of programs that is used to control and manage the entire database. Under this comes DBMS software, operating system, and application programs.
DBMS software is located between the database and the users. It provides a very easy interface to store, update, and retrieve data in the database.
Data is a main important component of DBMS. DBMS collects, stores, processes and accesses the data. Actual data, operational data, and metadata are stored in the database.
There are many users in this who access the data according to their needs. The capability and need of each user is different. In this the users are as follows:-
- Database administrator
- Database designers
- Application programmers
Database Administrators: Database Admin is responsible for managing everything related to the database. Database Admin has a central command over DBMS.
The Functions of Database admins are:
- Ensure security of the database.
- Granting authorization for accessing data.
- Execute recovery procedures in case of failures or data corruption.
End Users: End Users are the users who are accessing the database from the terminal end. These are the people who interact with DBMS for various operations like retrieval, up-gradation of the data, etc. There are two types of end-users:
Application Programmers: These are the professional programmers that are responsible for developing applications in different languages thus helping the applications to interact with the database. Application programmers are responsible for the creativeness of databases.
System Analyst: System Analyst handles the physical, technical, and economical aspects of DBMS. Every requirement of the End user is handled by a system analyst.
Some Popular DBMS Softwares
Here are some of the popular DBMS software
Procedures come with rules and instructions for using the database management system. Procedures tell how to use the database in the system. Such as: – Installing and setting up DBMS, logging in to the database, logging out, backing up the database, and handling the database etc.
In DBMS all the data is kept in tables. Data collection, filter, editing, retrieving etc. all the work is done on the tables only. Tables are made up of Rows and Columns inside which all the data is stored.
Each column inside the table is called a field. Every specific piece of data is stored in it like customer number, customer name, street address, state etc.
The data contained in the rows inside the table is called record. A record is a type of entry that can contain a person’s name, phone number, etc.
Extracting data according to the requirement from a table or database is called query. For example, if you want to extract the list of friends living in the same city, then it will be called query.
You can enter data in the table but it is not easy to modify and store in it. That’s why forms are used to remove this time. Data is entered in forms just like tables.
When you print the records of the database on paper, it is called a report.
What are the characteristics of Database System?
- Being of Self Describing Nature: A database system not only contains data but also stores the description of database structure and constraints along with it. In this, the definition is stored in the DBMS catalog, which contains information such as structure of each file, type and storage format of each data and constraint. The information stored in the catalog is called meta data.
- Having Program Data Independence: If I talk about traditional file processing, then the structure of each file is embedded in the application program. Therefore, due to any change in the file, it becomes necessary to make necessary changes in the programs to access that file. Whereas in DBMS, we have program data independence because in this the structure of data files is stored separately in system catalog, if we compare it with access programs then.
- It supports Multiple Views of Data: There are many users of a database in which each requires a different view or perspective for the database.
- Sharing of Database can be between Multiple Users: DBMS allows multiple users to access the database at the same time.
- There is no data redundancy in this. That is, there is no duplicate data.
- There is security in it, that is, no unauthorized user can access it.
- If for some reason the database gets deleted or becomes corrupt, then we can take a backup of it.
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What is the function of DBMS
It is a general purpose software system which provides us with the following features:-
Each application has its own personal files in the file system and in such a situation, duplicate files of the same data are created at many places. In DBMS, the same type of files are kept at one place, that is, it is not repeated, due to which the redundancy of data is reduced.
Sharing Of Data
Data is shared by the authorized user of the organization in DBMS. In this, the data administrator controls the data and gives rights to the user to access the data.
Through DBMS, the same type of data can be prevented from being stored repeatedly in the database.
Integration Of Data
In DBMS, all the data is in the table and there is more than one table in a database. Relationships can be created between all these tables, which makes it easy to retrieve and update data.
Data in DBMS is completely controlled by the data administrator. In this, only the administrator makes sure that to which user the data has to be given and how much data has to be given. The database administrator controls all this on which part of the database is to be given to the user and which part is not. This increases the security of the database and the data does not go into the wrong hands.
You all know that computer is a kind of machine and it can malfunction anytime and hardware or software failure can happen anytime, in which case data can be destroyed. Through DBMS, you can easily recover data in such condition.
- Create Data: Data is created by DBMS, that is, it is stored in the table.
- Manage Data: In this the data is managed so that it can be accessed easily.
- Update Data: In this the data can be updated as per the need.
- Delete Data: The data which is not needed in this is deleted.
- Data Backup: Data is backed up in this so that it can be recovered when the system fails.
- Data Recovery: In this, data is recovered when the system fails.
Where is DBMS used?
It is used at the following places:-
- It is used in Banking to store customer information, payment, account activities, deposits and loans.
- It is used for ticket booking and reservation in airlines.
- In college and school, it is done for student information, course registration, and result.
- DBMS is used to store call records, bills and balance information in telecommunication.
- It is used to store the information of stock, sales, and purchase in finance.
- In Sales it is used to store the information of customer, product and sales.
- In manufacturing, it is used for supply chain management and to track the product.
- In HR management, it is used to store the information of employees, salary, payroll and paycheck etc.
The history of databases System
The history of databases begins with the two earliest computerised examples. Charles Bachman designed the first computerised database in the early 1960s. This first database was known as the Integrated Data Store, or IDS. This was shortly followed by the Information Management System, a database created by IBM.
Advantages of DBMS
There are various advantages of Database Management System
Data integrity means that the data is accurate and consistent. Thus the data that is stored in DBMS is integrated.
A DBMS provides a framework. The framework provides a proper authentication before accessing work for the better security of data as many users are accessing the data at the same time thus the chances of breaching data.
It increases the efficiency and productivity of both end-users and application developers by reducing the time for retrieving data and application development time.
Abstraction and Independence
DBMS enables users to change the physical scheme without changing the logical one. i.e Abstraction helps in hiding certain level details from users whereas Independence lets them change or retrieve the data from one level without damaging the other levels.
Other advantages of DBMS are
- Simpler Data Sharing
- Better Decision Making
- Uniform Administrations
Disadvantages of DBMS
Although DBMS may offer a variety of advantages it has some limitations too
- The composting of hardware and software is quite expensive with sophisticated designs.
- The impact of the failure is higher. i.e Many users tend to lose data at the same time
- Centralized Database control.
- Highly Complex
- Some database management systems require a larger space for their implementation.
DBMSs are essential especially for large organizations as they have plenty of data stored. Without the DBMSs, the efficiency and productivity of the organizations will fall. With this note, this is the end of the article. Thanks for reading.
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