What is ISP || How does an ISP work

What is ISP || How does an ISP work
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What is ISP?

An ISP is a company that provides Internet service to its customers or users. If you understand it in simple words, then the company from which you get internet connection for your home or office, the same company is called your ISP.

All that organization or company that does the work of providing Internet service, that company is called ISP i.e. Internet Service Provider. ISP gives you internet enabled. Many ISPs, in addition to providing Internet access to the user, provide many other Internet services. For example: email service, web hosting, domain, website design, software package, etc.

What is ISP?
What is ISP || How does an ISP work

An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is an organization that provides access to and services that use the Internet. – Wikipedia
It is only through ISP that you can connect devices like your smartphone, laptop, computer, etc. to the Internet. For the first time in India, Internet service was launched on 14 August 1995 by Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL). Thus the first ISP company in India is Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL).

ISPs have complete data of their customers, what they are searching for on the internet, what websites they are accessing, what they are downloading, etc. It can block any website at any time, as they have complete control over it.

>>INTERNET SERVICES | History of The Internet

What is the full form of ISP?

The full form of ISP is “Internet Service Provider”.
ISP – Internet Service Provider

full form of isp

The full form of ISP is “Internet Service Provider” in Hindi.
ISP – Internet Service Provider

Types of ISP?

ISPs offer several types of internet connections to provide connectivity to their customers.

1) Dial-up

The dial-up connection used in the past, has now ceased to exist. In this, the user has to use the telephone line for internet connection. A modem is required to setup a dial-up connection. And this modem acts as an interface between the computer and the telephone line.

The speed of this type of connection is very slow. In small rural areas where there is no cable connection, this type of connection is used to provide internet service.

2) DSL

The full form of DSL is Digital Subscriber Line. It’s similar to a dial-up connection, but much better. Because in this also the Internet service is delivered to the user through the telephone line, but the Internet connectivity in this is better than the speed dial-up.

It provides high-speed Internet service to the user’s home or office through today’s modern telephone networks. Many telecom companies and phone companies provide DSL connections. It can also be called a form of broadband connection.

3) Cable Internet

Telephone lines are not used for cable internet connections. For this cable wire is used, which is called coaxial cable. The ISP lays the coaxial cable at its user’s home or office. which is connected to a modem.

The modem is then connected to the computer via an Ethernet cable. After which the user gets high speed internet service. It can also be called a one way broadband connection. Coaxial cables can transfer data at higher speeds than telephone lines.

4) Wireless Broadband (WiB)

A wireless broadband connection is a type of connection that does not use any wires. In this the connection is without cable or without wire. Wireless connection provides internet via Wi-Fi. If you have more than one computer, tab, smartphone, you can get Wi-Fi internet connection.

Nowadays Wi-Fi is available in every smartphone, tab or laptop. So we easily access internet by using Wi-Fi in public places like hotels, restaurants, airports etc. Apart from this, you can also get Wi-Fi broadband connection in your home or office.

For this, the user needs a modem as well as a router. Wi-Fi works like any other wireless technology. It uses radio frequencies to transfer signals by connecting two or more devices together.

5) Fiber optical internet connection

This is a new technology, whose internet speed is many times faster than all other types. Its download speed is around 1 Gbps. In this, fiber optic cable is used to provide internet service to the user.

This is a new technology, so currently only available in select and major cities. ISPs want to make it available in more cities, but the cost of installing fiber optic cabling is very high, so ISPs have not been able to reach it in many cities yet.

Classification of ISP?

Internet service providers are divided into three parts according to their level and their services:

level 1

Tier 1 ISP company is a global company. It is the largest ISP compared to the rest of the ISP, which works to connect different countries to the Internet internationally. These companies lay cables under the sea and communicate the Internet between different countries.

They are also called the backbone of the Internet provider. Because if this company fails or there is any problem in it, then the internet service of many countries can be destroyed. As you all know that no one owns the internet.
Tier 1 ISP Company
So how does the internet reach us and to whom does the fee we pay go to? Internet access to us has been possible only because of Tier 1 ISP company. And a major part of the fees we pay goes to them. Which works to provide internet between countries and continents by laying cables under the sea. Some examples of Tier 1 ISP company :- Telstra, Sprint, Singtel, AT&T, NTT.

tier 2

Tier 2 ISP company operates on a national level. These types of companies work between Tier 1 and Tier 3 i.e. their reach remains regional or within the country. These are medium type ISPs. Those who are smaller than Tier 1 but bigger than Tier 2.

When Tier 1 internet service reaches the country, Tier 2 extends that internet connection to different states of the country. That is, Tier 2 company works to provide internet in all different states and cities inside the country.

In this type of company, internet traffic is exchanged by peering agreement as well as transit. This means that transit connections are usually made between Tier 1 and Tier 2, and between Tier 2 through peering agreements. Some Examples of Tier 2 ISP Company :- Reliance Jio, Vodafone, Airtel, BSLN.

tier 3

Tier 3 ISP companies operate on a very small scale. These are the smallest ISPs, who work within cities by providing internet connection at home, office or colony. It works by purchasing an internet connection from a Tier 2 ISP and bringing the connection to common people’s homes, offices, etc.

This type of ISP company buys internet from Tier 2 companies according to the traffic and provides internet facility to the end customer i.e. areas like your home or office. Some examples of Tier 3 ISP company:- Tikona, Hathway, Spectra, Den.

>>What is IP Address in Networking

How does an ISP work?

No one owns the internet. It is a global connection of many networks, large or small. And because of this, all the devices around the world are connected to each other through the Internet. In fact, the Internet is a huge network of interconnected networks, which in computer language is called transmission media.

Many high bandwidth data lines are used to access internet facilities in every corner of the world. It is also called the backbone of the Internet. These lines are connected to major internet hubs in various places. After which these hubs distribute the data to different locations. These internet hubs are called ISPs (Internet Service Providers).

Most of the internet service providers provide internet connection to the user through cable, DSL or fiber connection. The computer kept in the company’s office has internet connection. The computer may be connected to the company’s WiFi or LAN cable, but the company connects to some ISPs. By which all the computers of the company are connected to the Internet.

Similarly, if someone accesses the Internet via public WiFi, that WiFi router is still connected to some ISP. For example, to provide Internet service to your home, your computer has a router connected to it, but where is the Internet coming from in that router? That ISP provides. Meaning the router is connected to the ISP.

Earlier, to provide internet service, ISPs had to install wires throughout the area. But with the advent of wireless media, it has become easier for the user to access the Internet only with the help of towers and satellites. Through this, every person in every corner of the world has access to the Internet.

In today’s time, due to the advanced technology, the competition among ISP companies has increased a lot. Due to which internet service has become very cheap in the market today.

>>Introduction to Computer Networks

About the author


Tech Writer - 100+ articles published on Edu Tech Gyan since 2021
For as long as I can remember, I have been interested in technology. I have loved gadgets and understanding how things work since a young age. Since graduating, I've worked for tech companies.

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